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Interpretation of LED lighting technology from three aspects: chip, package and application

2020-04-06 10:44:31
Today, with the continuous development of LED lighting technology and the increasing emphasis on energy crisis in the society, the LED lighting industry is ushering in a full-blown period, attracting many capitals and enterprises, and the competition in the lighting market is becoming increasingly fierce.

       If you look at the development of LED lighting technology, there are three aspects, one is the chip level, one is the packaging level, and the other is the application level. The chip-level is mainly concerned with the manufacturing technology of LEDs; the packaging level is mainly how to convert LED chips into lamp beads or light sources that can be used for lighting; the LED application-level technology development is relatively complicated, mainly including the development of electronic control technology, new materials development, and use, development and improvement of environmental lighting quality evaluation technology.

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Chip level:
Has been pursuing high luminous efficiency as the driving force for the development of LED chip technology. Flip-chip technology is one of the main technologies for obtaining high-efficiency and high-power LED chips. The substrate material sapphire and the vertical structure of the laser substrate peeling technology (LLO) and the new bonding technology will still be in a long time. Dominate.

But in the near future, the use of metal-semiconductor structures to improve ohmic contact, improve crystal quality, improve electron mobility and electrical injection efficiency, while roughening the surface of LED chips and photonic crystals, high reflectivity mirrors, transparent electrodes to improve the extraction of light Efficiency, then the total efficiency of white LEDs can reach 52%.

With the improvement of LED light efficiency, on the one hand, the chips are made smaller and smaller, and the number of chips that can be cut on an epitaxial wafer of a certain size is increasing, thereby reducing the cost of a single chip. If it is 3W now, it will develop towards 5W and 10W in the future. This can reduce the number of chips used for lighting applications with power requirements and reduce the cost of application systems.

In short, the flip-chip method, high voltage, GaN on silicon will still be the development direction of semiconductor lighting chips.

Packaging level:
       Chip-scale packaging, LED filament packaging, high color rendering index and wide color gamut will be the future development trend of packaging technology. The use of transparent conductive film, surface roughening technology, and DBR reflector technology to improve the light efficiency of LED lamp beads. Formal packaging is still the mainstream of technology; at the same time, the COB / COF technology of the flip-chip structure is also the focus of packaging manufacturers. Integrated packaging light engine Will become the focus of research and development in the next quarter.

       De-powering solutions (high-voltage LED), the popularity of COB / COF applications: driven by cost factors, de-powering solutions have gradually become acceptable products, and high-voltage LEDs fully cater to de-powering solutions, but their need to solve is chip reliability. With the advantages of low thermal resistance, good light type, solder-free, and low cost, COB applications will be widely popular in the future.

       In addition, medium power will become the mainstream packaging method. Most products on the market are high-power LED products or low-power LED products. Although they have their own advantages, they also have insurmountable defects. LED products came into being.

       There is also the application of new materials in packaging. Materials with higher environmental resistance such as high-temperature resistance, UV resistance and low water absorption, such as thermosetting materials EMC, thermoplastic PCT, modified PPA and ceramic-like plastics, will be widely used.

       For the requirements of light quality, for indoor lighting, the LED color rendering index CRI takes 80 as the standard and 90+ as the goal. The light color of the lighting product should be as close to the Planck curve as possible. Lighting will also pay more attention to the quality of light.

       By optimizing the LED packaging technology, the light efficiency is further improved, which has now exceeded 200lm / W, far higher than other traditional light sources used in large quantities. The heat dissipation performance of LED lamp beads will be further improved, the reliability will be further improved, and the life of lamp beads will be further extended, so that the quality of light color will be further improved, and finally the human eye comfort will be further improved.

LED application R & D level:
Currently, application manufacturers mainly use new heat dissipation materials, advanced optical design, and new optical material applications to achieve cost optimization of LED lighting products, while ensuring product performance.
But in the future, LED lighting application manufacturers will focus on these points:
1. Interchangeable LED light engine technology based on application scenario requirements;
2. Architecture technology of LED intelligent lighting system based on IoT platform;
3. Development of LED lighting fixtures based on reliability design, development of high-performance LED lighting fixtures that maintain color/brightness consistency over the life cycle;
4. The development of lamps and lanterns based on large-area high-efficiency diffuse diffuser technology;
5. Online lighting environment experience lighting system solution technology and service system;
6. The rich color characteristics of the LED light source, which makes scene lighting will also be the core competitiveness of LED lighting.

Traditional lighting fixtures are designed around the shape and size of the light source, and the size is fixed.

And the characteristics of LED lighting are:
Lamps are free in shape and creative in appearance;
The size of the lamp is free and the size is flexible;
The light quantity of the lamps and lanterns is free, and the lighting is on-demand;
The lamps and lanterns have free spectrum and flexible light and color;
The position of the lamp is free, and the installation is free.

       In the future, the shape of LED lamps will no longer be limited to the shape of traditional lamps but will tend to be free and hidden. Freedom of shape, on the one hand, meets individual needs, on the other hand, it can be embellished as an ornament; and the concealment of LED will make the lighting fixtures hidden in the form of embedded but everywhere. At the same time, LED lighting products can achieve arbitrary control of light lumens, and are no longer limited to a fixed wattage in a certain scene in a certain area. This will be great technological progress.

Smart lighting: future trends
       Intelligent lighting refers to the use of intelligent clients for information collection, processing, and manipulation, and achieves the characteristics of safety, energy-saving, health, and comfort through the functions of brightness adjustment, light switch distribution control, spectrum adjustment control, and scene-setting.

       The characteristics of intelligent lighting technology include distributed, remote control telemetry, open style, compatibility, interactivity and so on.

       To achieve intelligent lighting, you need to have client-side intelligent operation technology and data collection technology, Internet data transmission technology, cloud big data management and analysis technology, and customer's online experience of situational lighting technology. Only based on these technologies can intelligent lighting be truly realized.

       The requirements for intelligent lighting in the future are personalized display, simple manipulation, and emotion sensing.

       Because of its simpler lighting requirements and easier control, home LED lighting will start from here. However, with the development of technology, even in public places in the future, a good lighting system is needed. For example, the demand for intelligence in outdoor landscape lighting is very high, but the technology is difficult to meet the demand.

       How to break through the technical bottlenecks and price barriers of smart lighting in public places such as outdoor lighting and commercial lighting has also become an urgent problem to be solved.

       Intelligentization is an inevitable trend in future life. The intelligentization of LED lamps and lanterns is only a small part of the intelligentization of various home appliances. Enterprises must make lamps and lanterns smart and diverse through technological research and development to meet the individual needs of customers. However, due to problems such as high cost and poor product matching, the current smart lighting technology cannot make LED smart lighting products popular.

       As technology improves, product performance tends to be stable, and costs are reduced, intelligent LED lamps will definitely be widely circulated in the market. Whether the LED enterprise has mastered the intelligent lighting technology and designed products and intelligent control systems that meet the market demand has largely determined the long-term development of the enterprise.

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From the point of view of the use scene, different scenes have different lighting requirements. As a "torrent" of LED lighting, LED indoor lighting has three main stages of development:

1. Improve product performance.
       At this stage, LED companies to focus on improving product efficiency and ensuring the lighting quality of LED products, such as improving the efficiency of products such as LED light sources, MR16 lamp cups and LED modules;

2.optimize costs.
       At this stage, the enterprise should try to shorten the product recovery cycle, increase its own production capacity, and improve the product development technology to produce a cost-effective product accepted by customers;

3. Leading the digitalization of light.
       There are three important measures of indoor lighting quality: physical indicators, physiological indicators, and psychological indicators. Different lighting environments will affect consumers 'heartbeat, blood pressure and other physiological indicators, which will affect consumers' psychological comfort. In lighting applications, physiological and psychological indicators are more important.

       In the future, indoor lighting will not pay too much attention to the light effect but will pay more attention to the quality of light and the emotional experience of customers, create a pleasant environment through the perception of light, and the chromatic aberration of lamps in different viewing directions. The chromatic aberration, color drift and strobe of LED products will affect the indoor lighting effect.

       At present, domestic LED lighting application technology is relatively scattered. Homogeneous products and inferior products flood the LED lighting market, causing chaos in the market and disorderly competition. Many domestic LED companies are in the learning stage, rather than independent innovation. Many SMEs focus on short-term benefits. On the other hand, they do not have enough resources and time to invest in product research and development, resulting in uneven LED products. The quality and performance of LED products of international lighting companies are superior to domestic products, especially in optical design and intelligent control of products.

       In response to this situation, in the early stage, small LED companies can develop technology through purchasing industry association technology or through enterprise marketing strength; when the enterprise-scale reaches the medium stage, it is necessary to change the development strategy and clarify LED lighting through in-depth market research The future development trend of the product, actively invest a lot of resources to enhance research and development strength, and compete with the group to compete in the LED lighting market.

       The LED lighting industry will continue to integrate resources. LED lighting companies at the helm must have keen market insight, increase investment to improve product research and development capabilities and accumulate core competitiveness in order to be invincible in the future competition.